Fly Agaric (Amanita Muscaria)
Amanita muscaria is a member of the Basidiomycete group of fungi and is the basic toadstool depicted in literature and artwork with a purple or orange cap that’s typically mottled with white spots. When dry these specimens have an orange/brown color however the mottled recognizing continues to be clearly seen (Fig. 14.1) and NPS samples are bought as bagged-up complete basidia (caps).
Determine 14.1. Cap of Amanita muscaria displaying the distinctive mottled spots attribute of this species.
Determine 14.2 exhibits a NPS product bought on the Web and disingenuously labelled ‘not for consumption’, regardless of there being no rational purpose aside from for analysis functions for possession of this materials.
Determine 14.2. A authorized excessive buy of Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric) ‘labelled not for consumption’.
Inside this genus there are a variety of toxic kin together with the panther (Amanita pantherina), the demise cap (Amanita phalloides) and the delightfully termed destroying angel (Amanita verna) .
Fly agaric has a protracted historical past of use as a sedative materials and the primary psychoactive compounds inside these species are considered analogues of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamic acid, notably muscimol and ibotenic acid, respectively  (Fig. 14.three).
Determine 14.three. Constructions of Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), muscimol, ibotenic acid, and muscarine.
The pure merchandise muscimol and ibotenic acid are isoxazole alkaloids and possess some structural similarity with GABA and each act at varied components of the GABA receptor. Muscimol is derived from ibotenic acid by decarboxylation . Muscarine is a cholinergic agonist and was thought to contribute to the general psychoactivity of A. muscaria. Nevertheless, it was reported later that the mushroom contained solely hint quantity of muscarine so it’s unlikely to be liable for the psychoactive impact .
Using this materials is steeped in historical past and it has been prompt that fly agaric is Soma, the vedic drug consumed by the Indo-Iranians. Poisoning by this species has been described because the ‘pantherina–muscaria’ syndrome and is ‘atropine like’ and relatively uncommon. Signs can manifest between 30 minutes and two hours and embody dizziness, confusion, tiredness, and elevated sensitivity to visible and auditory stimuli. The ‘atropine-like’ results additionally embody dryness of mouth, pupil dilation and adopted by drowsiness with a deep sleep [10,11]. Results have been in comparison with alcohol consumption however with hallucinations, incoherent speech, potential seizures, vomiting, transient deep sleep or coma and protracted headache . Therapy of toxicity related to A. muscarina consists of intestine decontamination and in extreme instances the usage of benzodiazepines; some authors have prompt that the usage of a cholinesterase inhibitor reminiscent of physostigmine could should be thought-about . In some nations fly agaric is consumed as meals stuff however the purple pores and skin is eliminated and the mushroom is soaked or boiled and the ensuing water is discarded, and this could presumably affect lowering the concentrations of the isoxazoles, and due to this fact scale back the chance of psychotropic results. A number of case research have been reported with one instance of a 48- year-old male having consumed fly agaric, vomited and fell asleep 30 minutes after consumption, being discovered later comatose and having a seizure-like episode. 4 hours after admission he was nonetheless comatose and was administered activated charcoal and awoke 10 hours after ingestion. At 18 hours his situation deteriorated with paranoid psychosis and visible and auditory hallucinations which endured for 5 days. This case report prompt delay can happen with the onset of poisoning and that psychosis could final a number of days .
One case report has proven respiratory and cardiovascular melancholy with ingestion of fly agaric with myoclonus, flushing and mydriasis and remedy included the usage of intravenous atropine, diazepam and mechanical/assisted air flow .